Publications dans Hal

Publications dans Hal

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HAL : Dernières publications

  • [hal-04648106] Comment faire sortir l’insecte stérile du laboratoire ?

    La technique de l’insecte stérile est une alternative prometteuse pour s’affranchir des pesticides en agriculture. Cependant, malgré ses promesses, elle peine à se développer car elle implique de repenser et de construire un nouveau monde sociotechnique. Cet article étudie les différents agencements entre humains et non-humains qui caractérisent chaque étape du développement de la TIS, de la naissance de l’insecte à sa potentielle commercialisation, en passant par sa stérilisation et son lâcher dans le monde réel. Nos résultats montrent que le développement de la TIS nécessite des agencements entre divers actants : insectes stériles, chercheurs, agriculteurs ou riverains, acteurs publics, insectes sauvages, industriels. Nous constatons que dans une situation où le lien entre ces actants n’est pas stabilisé, les agencements sociotechniques nécessaires sont imaginés par les chercheurs ; cette anticipation de leur part des attentes du monde non académique sur lequel ils veulent agir est très présente dans chaque choix du développement de la TIS. (Tasnime Adamjy) 15 Jul 2024
  • [hal-04645595] Critical assessment of a financial policy instrument to promote repair business model: case study of the French Repair fund

    [...] (Helen Micheaux) 11 Jul 2024
  • [hal-04391545] Sufficiency-based circular business models: An established retailers’ perspective

    Taking on the much-criticized concepts of green growth, bioeconomy, and efficiency, both sufficiency and, in certain circumstances, the circular economy, are presented as potential new paradigms that can play a central role in a transition towards a stronger sustainability and enable humanity to remain within planetary boundaries. In this context, this study aims to identify new sufficiency practices that have been adopted by retailers and to assess to what extent these practices have transformed their traditional business model, thus providing useful insights to practitioners, policymakers and the nascent academic literature on the topic. Through a combination of action research and case studies of the French actors Fnac-Darty and Decathlon, this article emphasizes that retailers may try to slow material and value loops by assessing products’ repairability and durability and informing customers through a specific index, for certain products or more globally their overall product portfolio, but also by using such indexes in eco-design requirements to suppliers, supplier selection processes, and product purchasing policies. By favoring the most repairable products and excluding the least durable ones, retailers can also improve their value proposition to customers. Through concrete examples, this study also shows that sufficiency-based business models can be scaled up and describes some of the associated processes. On a less optimistic note, certain limitations of the observed ongoing upscaling processes are highlighted, amongst which are the limited number of retailers that have started this process, the limited contribution of these new practices to overall value creation and capture at the firm level, and clear evidence of rebound effects. (Rémi Beulque) 21 May 2024
  • [hal-01173829] L'oeuf aux trésors

    [...] (Francoise Nau) 06 Jun 2020
  • [hal-03286683] Robustness to import declines of three types of European farming systems assessed with a dynamic nitrogen flow model

    Contexte Agriculture in Western Europe is predominantly input-intensive (fertilisers, water, fuel, pesticides) and relies on feed imports. As a result, it is dependent on oil, which may start to decline in production in the 2020s, thus exposing the agricultural sector to potential economic stress, including increased input prices and decreased farmer purchase capacities. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the capacity of European farming systems (FS) to maintain production levels despite a decline in oil production (i.e., robustness). OBJECTIVE: We aimed to model and compare the time variations in the animal- and crop-sourced production of three French FS under three scenarios of decreased availability of feed and synthetic fertiliser imports. METHODS: We developed a FS-scale dynamic model that considers nitrogen flows between livestock, plant, and soil compartments. Plant production is a function of soil mineral nitrogen levels, and livestock numbers depend on feed availability. The three FS are characterised by different crop-grassland-livestock balances: (i) field crop (Plateau Picard), (ii) intensive monogastric (Bretagne Centrale), and (iii) extensive ruminant (Bocage Bour-bonnais). The three scenarios consist of different combinations of synthetic nitrogen fertilisers and feed import availability declines until 2050: a decrease in synthetic fertilisers only (Synth-), a decrease in feed imports (Feed-), and a decrease in both external inputs (Synth-Feed-). RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS The first two scenarios highlight the positive role of livestock effluents and permanent grasslands on the robustness of food production. In the Synth-Feed- scenario, the extensive ruminant FS exhibits robustness (no decline in food production) for 13 years, whereas the field crop FS exhibits robustness for 4 years. In contrast, the intensive monogastric FS shows decreased food production within the first year. The difference between the two crop-livestock FS can be explained by livestock density, herd composition but also plant cover composition. In the long term, all three FS show a decrease in food production between 45 and 60%. SIGNIFICANCE Our modelling work shed some light on the role of ruminants and permanent grasslands in making FS more robust to decreases in synthetic fertiliser and feed import availability, increasing the time without production decline after the beginning of the perturbation. For longer-time resilience, configurational changes are still necessary, however a greater robustness gives more time to implement them, therefore facilitating adaptation and transformation. Our model paves the way to the study of resilience of FS from the point of view of their crop-grassland-livestock configuration and their dependence on external inputs. (Corentin Pinsard) 15 Jul 2021
  • [hal-01178832] Can an organic market garden without motorization be viable through holistic thinking? The case of a permaculture farm

    In industrialized countries, innovative farmers inspired by permaculture holistic principles claim to design market gardens only based on manual labor. We carried out a case study on one of these farms to assess in which extent this approach could make it possible for a commercial organic market garden to be viable without motorization. Our work showed that these market gardeners implemented a wide range of strategies embracing ecological, technical and commercial dimensions to increase their production on a small cultivated area and the added value of such production. On a cultivated acreage of 1061m2, they were able to create a monthly net income between 882€ and 2058€ depending on sales and investment levels. Theses incomes were generated with an average workload of 43h per week. Such economic performances demonstrated that these initiatives can be viable. However, the studied approach excluded growing manually conservation crops such as potatoes. Further investigation should be carried out about the way manual and motorized market gardeners can collaborate to build together a satisfying commercial offer. (Kevin Morel) 18 Sep 2016
  • [hal-02945974] Strategies to manage crop planning complexity in very diversified direct selling farming systems: the example of organic market gardeners

    [...] (Kevin Morel) 22 Sep 2020
  • [hal-01227839] Forecasting the Effects of Land Use Scenarios on Farmland Birds Reveal a Potential Mitigation of Climate Change Impacts

    Climate and land use changes are key drivers of current biodiversity trends, but interactions between these drivers are poorly modeled, even though they could amplify or mitigate negative impacts of climate change. Here, we attempt to predict the impacts of different agricultural change scenarios on common breeding birds within farmland included in the potential future climatic suitable areas for these species. We used the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) to integrate likely changes in species climatic suitability, based on species distribution models, and changes in area of farmland, based on the IMAGE model, inside future climatic suitable areas. We also developed six farmland cover scenarios, based on expert opinion, which cover a wide spectrum of potential changes in livestock farming and cropping patterns by 2050. We ran generalized linear mixed models to calibrate the effects of farmland cover and climate change on bird specific abundance within 386 small agricultural regions. We used model outputs to predict potential changes in bird populations on the basis of predicted changes in regional farmland cover, in area of farmland and in species climatic suitability. We then examined the species sensitivity according to their habitat requirements. A scenario based on extensification of agricultural systems (i.e., low-intensity agriculture) showed the greatest potential to reduce reverse current declines in breeding birds. To meet ecological requirements of a larger number of species, agricultural policies accounting for regional disparities and landscape structure appear more efficient than global policies uniformly implemented at national scale. Interestingly, we also found evidence that farmland cover changes can mitigate the negative effect of climate change. Here, we confirm that there is a potential for countering negative effects of climate change by adap-tive management of landscape. We argue that such studies will help inform sustainable agricultural policies for the future. (Karine Princé) 12 Nov 2015
  • [ird-02381086] Panarchy of an indigenous agroecosystem in the globalized market: The quinoa production in the Bolivian Altiplano

    Agricultural globalization is blamed for destructive impacts on small farms in developing countries. Yet, many local societies are proactive in the face of these changes and show high adaptive capacity. Investigating their transformations with an integrative perspective and enough hindsight may reveal some of the bases of their resilience and adaptive capacity. Using field data and the panarchy concept of resilience theory, we analyzed the territorial and social dynamics of quinoa growers' communities in southern Bolivia over the last four decades, a case study of regime shift in a poverty-stricken rural society which deliberately entered the global food market. Linking the dynamics of the household economy to the territorial and social subsystems over several decades, we gained insights into the interactions that shaped the rise of quinoa production in the region. We found that a vivid tradition of mobility allowing for pluriactivity on-and off-farm, combined with community self-governance, explains how local populations succeeded in articulating individual agency with collective control over their commons of land, seed resources, and social rules. Our vulnerability analysis points to landscape homogenization, social inequity, and increased dependence on external factors as potential sources of unsustainability. We conclude that, to cope with the changes of unprecedented magnitude they are facing, local producers should retain social cohesion and autonomous governance, without giving up on their heritage of mobility and economic redundancy. As regards theory, we identified cross-scale subsystem configurations critical for regime shifts, and confirm the value of panarchy in capturing complex socioecological dynamics. (Thierry Winkel) 27 Nov 2019
  • [ird-02381033] The Sustainability of Quinoa Production in Southern Bolivia: from Misrepresentations to questionable solutions. Comments on S.Jacobsen (2011, J. Agron. Crop Sci.36197:390‐399)

    Reviewing the situation of quinoa production in southern Bolivia, Jacobsen (2011, J. Agron. Crop Sci. 197: 390) argues that the booming export market has a negative effect on the environment and on the home consumption of quinoa, thereby leading to an environmental disaster in the region. In view of the scarcity of scientific knowledge on the rapid social and environmental dynamics in the region, we consider that Jacobsen’s review misrepresents the situation of quinoa production in southern Bolivia. Specifically, we argue that (i) the data presented by Jacobsen (2011, J. Agron. Crop Sci. 197: 390) do not support any drop in quinoa crop yield supposed to reflect soil degradation and (ii) his demonstration regarding home consumption of quinoa is ill-founded from both a nutritional and a cultural point of view. We suggest that the diffusion of the arguments exposed by Jacobsen (2011, J. Agron. Crop Sci. 197: 390), because of their flaws, might have strong negative impacts on those concerned with sustainable food production and fair-trade with developing countries. We conclude that, rather than reinforced agro-technical controls on local farmers, the rising competition in the international quinoa market requires a shift towards an ethical economy and ethical research cooperation with quinoa producers. (Thierry Winkel) 27 Nov 2019
  • [hal-01222799] Bibliographie - "Permaculture. Principes et pistes d’action pour un mode de vie soutenable" de David Holmgren

    En 1978, les australiens Bill Mollisson et David Holmgren publient Permaculture I. Leur démarche s’inscrit alors dans la critique du développement par la croissance et de ses conséquences environnementales (voir Club de Rome, B. Commoner, etc.). Ce mouvement critique est à l’origine de la Political ecology aussi bien que de la (re)naissance de l’agroécologie (P. Montaldo, E. Hernandez X., M. Altieri...), où la problématique du développement durable trouvera ses sources. Mais Mollison et Holmgren sont avant tout parties prenantes des mouvements alternatifs qui prônent une rupture concrète radicale avec la modernité consumériste. Une rupture qui passe par la mise en application de modes de vies alternatifs par des individus et des familles faisant progressivement communauté en s’ancrant dans un territoire. Ces mouvements revendiquent donc une logique de changement partant de la base, contre les institutions et les appareils politiques, qui les apparentent aux traditions anarchistes, de Fourier à Élisée Reclus. (François Léger) 30 Oct 2015
  • [hal-01206302] Aspirations, stratégies et compromis des microfermes maraîchères biologiques

    Nous avons mené une étude de cas sur 14 fermes maraîchères biologiques très diversifiées sur petite surface (que nous définissons comme microfermes) afin de comprendre les aspirations et les stratégies développées par ces paysans atypiques. Notre travail a montré qu' il est inapproprié de chercher à comprendre/juger/diagnostiquer/concevoir les choix stratégiques des microfermes d’un point de vue uniquement technico-économique en se focalisant sur leur rentabilité et sur la maximisation du profit. En effet, si la création d’un revenu jugé décent par les maraîchers est une condition nécessaire à la viabilité de ces expériences alternatives, elle n’en est absolument pas une condition suffisante car ces paysans envisagent leur projet agricole comme un projet de vie qui englobe de nombreuses aspirations non marchandes comme la recherche d’autonomie, de sens et de qualité de vie. Cependant, la volonté de ces maraîchers d’œuvrer pour le bien-être social et environnemental collectif peut parfois être en tension avec la qualité de vie et le bien-être des maraîchers eux-mêmes. La viabilité de ces initiatives semble donc fortement reposer sur la manière dont ces paysans réalisent des compromis entre ces dimensions. (Kevin Morel) 19 Apr 2018
  • [hal-01198245] Altiplano Sur de Bolivia

    Alimento de base de las poblaciones andinas desde hace milenios, la quinua se ha convertido hoy en un producto apreciado en el mercado internacional de alimentos dietéticos, orgánicos y equitativos. Este cambio lo iniciaron los mismos productores del Altiplano Sur de Bolivia hace aproximadamente unos 40 años. En medio de un desierto de altura, ellos lograron desarrollar una floreciente producción agrícola de exportación. Aunque cuentan con lucrativos nichos de mercado, los productores de quinua no son agricultores especializados, ni residen de forma permanente en la zona de producción. Estas son algunas de las paradojas que caracterizan la producción de quinua en el Altiplano Sur de Bolivia. Después de describir el origen, la diversidad y los rasgos biológicos del ecotipo Quinua Real en el cual se basa la producción de esta zona, se plantea la importancia de la quinua en los agrosistemas locales y, más allá, en los sistemas de actividades agrícolas y no agrícolas manejados por las familias del Altiplano Sur. Movilidad geográfica y pluriactividad forman parte del modo de vida ancestral de estas poblaciones y determinan hasta hoy en día las condiciones de uso de los recursos territoriales y la organización de los productores en el contexto del auge comercial de la quinua. La producción actual de quinua en la región presenta rasgos de vulnerabilidad agroecológica y social, así como capacidades adaptativas para enfrentarlos. Se resaltan como puntos clave para la sostenibilidad de los agrosistemas locales: i) la concertación de reglas comunales e individuales para el acceso y uso de la tierra en agrosistemas socialmente equitativos y equilibrados entre cultivo y ganadería, ii) las normas internacionales para el reconocimiento de la Quinua Real en los mercados de exportación, iii) una actualización continua de las reglas y normas para mantener la adaptabilidad de los agrosistemas locales a los cambios imprevisibles del contexto socio-ecológico a varias escalas de espacio y de tiempo. (Thierry Winkel) 05 Jun 2020
  • [hal-01198255] The Southern Altiplano of Bolivia

    Quinoa has been a staple food for Andean populations for millennia. Today, it is a much-appreciated product on the international health-food, organic and fair-trade food markets. Quinoa producers in the southern Altiplano of Bolivia initiated this change approximately 40 years ago. On high desert land, they succeeded in developing a thriving agricultural crop for export. Although they enjoy lucrative niche markets, quinoa producers are not specialized farmers, nor do most of them live yearround in the production area. These are some of the paradoxes that characterize quinoa production in the southern Altiplano of Bolivia. Following a description of the origin, diversity and biological traits of the ‘Quinoa Real’ ecotype, on which production in this area is based, this chapter explores the importance of quinoa in local agrosystems and in the systems of agricultural and non-agricultural activities managed by southern Altiplano families. Geographic mobility and pluriactivity are part of the ancestral lifestyle of these populations and have to date determined how territorial resources are used and producers are organized in the context of quinoa’s commercial success. Quinoa production in the region is presenting signs of agro-ecological and social vulnerability; however, it has the capacities to respond and adapt accordingly. Key points for the sustainability of local agrosystems are: i) harmonization of communal and individual regulations concerning access to and use of land in socially equitable agrosystems with a balance between crops and animal husbandry, ii) international standards for the recognition of ‘Quinoa Real’ in export markets, iii) continuous updating of rules and regulations so that local agrosystems can adapt to unpredictable changes in the socio-ecological context on different scales of space and time. (Thierry Winkel) 05 Jun 2020
  • [hal-04102010] Ideal-types of experimentation practices in agricultural Living Labs: Various appropriations of an open innovation model

    CONTEXTThe “Living Lab” (LL) model of innovation practices is increasingly applied and strongly supported by innovation policies in the agricultural sector. But while the main principles of LLs imply specific approaches to collectively implementing open innovation processes, few studies have developed an understanding of the different ways of doing so, in relation to the experimental practices on which they rely. While the specificities of agricultural LLs are beginning to be described, little is known about how they more particularly reconfigure experimentation in agricultural innovation systems.OBJECTIVEThe purpose of this paper is to investigate the diversity of experimentation practices in agricultural LLs. It looks at how these practices correspond to different contextualized appropriations of an open innovation model, as translated into key principles for LL implementation.METHODSFirst, we produced an analytical framework that combines the principles of the LL model as described in the LL literature with generic dimensions of experimentation as analyzed in Science and Technology Studies. Second, we used this framework to analyze the diversity of experimentation practices in eighteen cases of LLs in the agricultural and food sectors. Cases were analyzed via two approaches: 1- three small and recent ongoing LLs located in France were studied during a one-year immersive observation; and 2- a collection of 15 other cases (identified in scientific and technical literature, each case corresponding to experiments that are forms of appropriation of the LL model of innovation, sometimes in several similar LLs) were analyzed, mostly based on scientific papers (describing the LLs or their outcomes), technical documents and available information such as videos online, with additional visits and discussions with LL actors for a subset of cases.RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONSOur results enable us to characterize three ideal-types of experimentation practices within agricultural LLs: 1- experimentation as a game of creativity in a predefined space; 2- experimentation as a progressive contextual adaptation for innovation adoption; and 3- experimentation as a catalyst for long-term local collective action. Each ideal-type corresponds to a particular combination of ways of (i) controlling what happens within the experimentation space, (ii) defining a perimeter for experimentation, (iii) integrating plural knowledge in problematization, and (iv) integrating various actors' evaluations of experiments. Beyond a clear distinction among ideal-types, appropriations of the LL model reveal different ways of anchoring the experimental process in an explicit temporality and situation, and of considering the construction of the LL itself as experimental and open-ended.SIGNIFICANCEOur analytical framework opens a new way to distinguish between various experimentation practices claiming to develop open innovation processes in agriculture. The three ideal-types that we have identified show the need to pay attention to the relation between collective experimentation practices and the LL expected outcomes.Graphical abstract (Quentin Toffolini) 22 May 2023
  • [hal-00885978] Which decision support tools for the environmental management of nitrogen?

    Which decision support tools should be developed to help agricultural stakeholders manage nitrogen in an environmentally friendly way? This paper presents the limitations of current decision support tools with respect to the implementation of a four-step quality spiral. PLAN: planning technical actions that satisfy both economic and environmental constraints. The priorities are to develop decision tools at the farm and the regional levels, and to estimate the indirect effects of nitrogen on the environment due to its interaction with pesticides. DO: implementation of technical actions. The design of decision support tools must integrate more information about the way in which farmers and their advisors will use the tools. CHECK: efficiency of the "PLAN/DO" steps must be evaluated on different scales. The priority is to propose and validate environmental indicators. ACT: definition of new priorities for the next loop. Research is required on diagnosis tools for tracing back the causes of environmental problems. (Jean-Marc Meynard) 11 May 2020
  • [hal-04558122] Valoriser les processus écologiques et hydrobiogéochimiques dans des paysages multifonctionnels

    [...] (Stéphanie Aviron) 24 Apr 2024
  • [hal-00939527] Quel déploiement spatio-temporel des variétés et des itinéraires techniques pour accroître la durabilité des résistances variétales ?

    Les moyens de gestion des bioagresseurs vont changer, dans les années à venir, sous la pression des demandes sociétales et politiques actuelles. Pour pallier la lutte chimique, il est possible de mobiliser des leviers génétique (variétés résistantes aux maladies) et agronomiques (pratiques culturales valorisant ces résistances ou réduisant les risques de pression ou de développement des bioagresseurs). La faible durabilité des résistances génétiques, liée à l'adaptation des agents pathogènes, renforce le besoin de proposer des solutions pour améliorer la gestion des résistances. Dans ce but, il est nécessaire de raisonner le système plante/bioagresseur à l'échelle pluriannuelle et supraparcellaire, certains agents pathogènes pouvant survivre à l'intersaison et être dispersés sur de longues distances. La durée d'efficacité des résistances peut être favorisée par un déploiement spatiotemporel raisonné des variétés résistantes et des pratiques associées. Du fait de ces échelles, la modélisation s'impose comme un moyen de concevoir et d'évaluer ces stratégies de déploiement. La nécessaire re-conception des systèmes de culture sera plus efficace avec la participation des acteurs, pour définir des stratégies économiquement viables, techniquement réalisables et socialement acceptables pour favoriser la durabilité des résistances. (Laure L. Hossard) 31 May 2020
  • [hal-02959717] Valoriser les processus écologiques, hydrobiogéochimiques dans des paysages multifonctionnels.

    L’agroécologie a été choisie par l’Inra comme l’un des chantiers de prospective interdisciplinaire destiné à identifier les fronts de recherche en réponse à de grands défis sociétaux. Quatre-vingt chercheurs ont dressé un bilan, et proposé des pistes de recherche pour l’agroécologie, et cet ouvrage en synthétise les principales conclusions. L’agroécologie, en tant que discipline scientifique, remettant l’écologie au centre de la conception des systèmes agricoles, est maintenant bien présente. Diversifier le vivant dans des agroécosystèmes est une visée à large spectre, pour les rendre plus robustes, plus résilients. Les recherches en génétique et en écologie du paysage sont mobilisées pour que l’agroécologie utilise des leviers de la parcelle au paysage. La modélisation des systèmes agroécologiques se développe pour mieux comprendre les interactions biotiques et abiotiques multiples, les prédire, et commencer à piloter certains systèmes. La diversification du vivant dans la production agricole (espèces, variétés, successions culturales, etc.) conduit à des produits plus variés. Les conséquences seront importantes sur les filières, ou plus exactement sur les systèmes agri-alimentaires, allant du mode de production aux produits consommés. Ces changements s’inscrivent sur le long terme. La transition agroécologique, adaptative, se coconstruisant avec les acteurs, est en soi un sujet de recherche, et pourra s’appuyer sur des dispositifs expérimentaux, des exploitations agricoles, des territoires d’innovation. (Sandrine Petit) 07 Oct 2020
  • [hal-04501970] Du désamour au désir, les haies reviennent de loin. Introduction

    L’arbre champêtre (hors forêt) et les haies sont devenus des éléments incontournables de la transition agroécologique et intéressent désormais des acteurs multiples aux attentes différentes. De nombreuses initiatives, publiques ou privées, pour le maintien et le développement des haies voient ainsi le jour dont la presse, aussi bien agricole que généraliste, se fait l’écho, témoignant d’un véritable engouement pour le sujet, quand bien même ce dernier constitue un domaine de l’action publique depuis plus de 40 ans. La reconnaissance quasi unanime des nombreux bénéfices environnementaux et sociaux du maintien et de la réintroduction de l’arbre dans les paysages et les agroécosystèmes – renforcement de la biodiversité et des trames vertes, contribution à l’attractivité et à l’économie des territoires, régulation du microclimat, maintien d’un patrimoine arboricole et paysager, etc. – semble avoir changé la donne. Ce dossier s’intéresse aux haies bocagères, qu’elles soient en zones agricoles, rurales ou périurbaines en tant qu’elles participent à plusieurs titres de l’amélioration des biens communs même si leur statut est, à cet égard, particulier : ce sont le plus souvent des biens privés dont les services environnementaux au bénéfice de l’agriculture et des territoires sont importants. Il s’agit ici de rendre plus compréhensibles les processus à l’oeuvre depuis la constitution du bocage en France jusqu’à sa régression, et de réfléchir aux conditions de maintien et d’une intégration durable de la haie à différentes échelles, plutôt que d’exposer des solutions toutes faites et peu efficaces sur le terrain. Dans cette perspective, les différentes contributions réunies ici mettent en dialogue des situations exemplaires avec des expériences moins abouties. Trois grandes entrées sont nourries par des contributions de chercheurs, de formateurs, de praticiens, d’acteurs associatifs et d’agriculteurs engagés dans la revalorisation des haies ou dans le développement territorial : Evolution et fonction des haies dans l’espace et le temps / usages, valorisations, mode de gestion, statuts/ expériences de praticiens (Philippe Hirou) 13 Mar 2024
  • [hal-01173260] Quel déploiement spatio-temporel des variétés et des itinéraires techniques pour accroître la durabilité des résistances variétales?

    Les moyens de gestion des bioagresseurs vont changer, dans les années à venir, sous la pression des demandes sociétales et politiques actuelles. Pour pallier la lutte chimique, il est possible de mobiliser des leviers génétique (variétés résistantes aux maladies) et agronomiques (pratiques culturales valorisant ces résistances ou réduisant les risques de pression ou de développement des bioagresseurs). La faible durabilité des résistances génétiques, liée à l’adaptation des agents pathogènes, renforce le besoin de proposer des solutions pour améliorer la gestion des résistances. Dans ce but, il est nécessaire de raisonner le système plante/bioagresseur à l’échelle pluriannuelle et supraparcellaire, certains agents pathogènes pouvant survivre à l’intersaison et être dispersés sur de longues distances. La durée d’efficacité des résistances peut être favorisée par un déploiement spatiotemporel raisonné des variétés résistantes et des pratiques associées. Du fait de ces échelles, la modélisation s’impose comme un moyen de concevoir et d’évaluer ces stratégies de déploiement. La nécessaire re-conception des systèmes de culture sera plus efficace avec la participation des acteurs, pour définir des stratégies économiquement viables, techniquement réalisables et socialement acceptables pour favoriser la durabilité des résistances. (Laure Hossard) 06 Jun 2020
  • [hal-03134671] How can models foster the transition towards future agricultural landscapes?

    Modern agriculture faces the dual challenges of feeding a growing human population, while preserving natural resources and slowing current trends in climate change and its impacts. A deep understanding of the functioning of agricultural landscapes appears crucial if we are to move towards sustainable, complex and resilient agroecosystems. Modelling is a powerful tool to address these issues since it can inform these transformations by simulating the multiscale ecological flows and myriad interactions agroecosystems host, and the multilevel stakeholder actions and their feedbacks in landscapes. This chapter shows that models can provide guidance on the transition towards future multifunctional agricultural landscapes. We have focused on process-based models, which allow for a more thorough understanding of the underlying mechanisms and how these may be manipulated. We first examine how models can simulate the structure and the dynamics of agricultural landscapes, emphasizing the complex mosaic of urban, peri-urban, rural and seminatural habitats. Then, we consider the simulation of biotic and abiotic flows and their complex interactions in the mosaic habitats. Using formalisms from the social sciences, we integrate human decision-making and actions into the landscape models, thereby encompassing a major component in the landscape transformation process. Finally, we outline some avenues for future research. We have focused on improvements to landscape representation, and have suggested ways to bridge the gap between future landscape conception and manipulation, thus providing operational guidance for the transition towards future agricultural landscapes that achieve our objectives. (Sylvain Poggi) 01 Aug 2023
  • [hal-01608700] Rôles, impacts et services issus des élevages en Europe. Rapport final

    Rôles, impacts et services issus des élevages en Europe. Rapport final (Bertrand Dumont) 05 Jun 2020
  • [hal-01198206] Comment évolue l’expérience des agriculteurs engagés dans l’écologisation de leurs pratiques?

    Cet article développe une approche méthodologique originale pour saisir les transformations que l’écologisation implique en termes d’expérience des agriculteurs. Cette approche se base sur une analyse agronomique préalable des trajectoires d’agriculteurs innovants, et une analyse, dans le champ de la didactique professionnelle, de l’évolution des jugements pragmatiques et des modèles opératifs des agriculteurs. (Emilia Chantre) 11 Sep 2015
  • [hal-01198199] Collecte de grandes cultures biologiques en Île-de-France

    Malgré des soutiens politiques importants, la production agricole biologique n’est pas en mesure, dans tous les secteurs, de satisfaire la demande des marchés. Dans le domaine des grandes cultures, l’émergence de nouveaux opérateurs de la collecte des productions, notamment des opérateurs du secteur conventionnel, apparaît aujourd’hui comme un moyen de développer à plus large échelle la production biologique nationale. À partir d’entretiens auprès d’organismes de collecte et de stockage intervenant dans la région Île-de-France, les auteures analysent les modalités de l’activité de collecte des grandes cultures biologiques et proposent une typologie d’opérateurs dans ce domaine. Les résultats interrogent le développement futur de la production biologique sur le territoire francilien, et plus largement, dans les régions de grandes cultures fortement liées aux opérateurs coopératifs et négociants. (Caroline Petit) 11 Sep 2015
  • [hal-01198191] Privatisation du conseil et évolution de la qualité des preuves produites pour les agriculteurs

    La privatisation du conseil agricole a débouché sur la création de nouvelles firmes de service. Des enquêtes réalisées dans trois régions, en Allemagne, en France et aux Pays-Bas, auprès de prestataires de conseil technique dans la filière céréales, montrent l’émergence de nouveaux types de prestataires (cabinets de consultants, fournisseurs de logiciels d’aide à la décision). Ces nouveaux acteurs ont des logiques de performances et des configurations de back-office très différentes de celles qui prévalaient dans les dispositifs de conseil publics ou de celles qui existent dans les entreprises d’amont et d’aval qui font du conseil (coopératives, négociants). Ce constat invite à ouvrir un agenda de recherches sur l’évolution de la qualité des « preuves » sur lesquelles peut s’appuyer le conseil. (Pierre Labarthe) 11 Sep 2015
  • [hal-01197949] Une Interview de René Passet

    René Passet, penseur humaniste, défie l’orthodoxie et ne cesse de chercher à dépasser les idées dominantes trop bien ancrées. Militant de la transdisciplinarité et visionnaire du global et de la complexité, il est à la recherche d’un nouveau paradigme, ouvert et intégrateur. (Lise Bourdeau-Lepage) 11 Sep 2015
  • [hal-01197931] La gouvernance de la qualité

    La définition de la qualité et les mécanismes de garanties utilisés pour donner confiance aux consommateurs peuvent être produites de manière centralisée au travers de régulations publiques ou de manière décentralisée au niveau des entreprises individuelles. Ces deux dimensions, définition et garantie de qualité sont au cœur de l’analyse que les auteurs proposent, en termes de gouvernance. L’objet de cet article est de proposer un cadre d’analyse pour analyser les interactions entre les différents « niveaux » de production et de protection de la qualité, ce que nous appelons les différents niveaux de gouvernance de la qualité. À cette fin, les travaux d’analyse économique qui se sont intéressés à la qualité des produits sont d’abord exposés pour ensuite donner les éléments nécessaires à la distinction de ces différents niveaux et ainsi pouvoir répondre aux interactions entre eux. (Manuel Gonzalez-Diaz) 11 Sep 2015
  • [hal-03645158] Contributions of local LUCC spatially explicit scenarios for water management: Lessons learned from an ex-post evaluation

    Although potential benefits and limits of scenarios are well known, few studies verify their impacts on knowledge production and public decision-making in the long term. In this paper, we perform an ex-post evaluation of land-use and land-cover change (LUCC) scenarios produced in 2004 aiming to support water management. The objective is to evaluate to what extent the impacts of those scenarios reflect expectations and to understand which factors influenced the occurrence of impacts. Moreover, we provide insights on the driving forces considered in LUCC modelling that produce plausible scenarios at a watershed level. At the time horizon of scenarios, we used semi structured interviews, combined with a quantitative comparison between observed and simulated LUCC. Results indicate that scenarios fulfilled their original purpose: to support the definition of the local water management strategy. Furthermore, they promoted a multidisciplinary perspective within land managers and facilitated the recognition of challenges and opportunities faced by local farmers. Nevertheless, they failed in creating a shared vision of the future across groups of different actors. The lessons learned from the evaluation are synthesized in guidelines that can be used to enhance impacts of any future scenarios. (Roberta Rigo) 19 Apr 2022
  • [hal-04431700] Socio-economic and socio-ecological benefits of allotment gardens – findings from case studies in France, Poland and Germany

    [...] (Marco Dobrodolac) 01 Feb 2024
  • [hal-04430938] How to measure the multiple benefits of UA: A review of multi-criteria tools for the development of a ua index

    [...] (Silvio Caputo) 01 Feb 2024
  • [hal-04430911] How efficient is urban agriculture regarding the food-energy-water nexus?

    [...] (Erica Dorr) 01 Feb 2024
  • [hal-03135713] Concevoir collectivement un système alimentaire résilient : les pistes explorées par un projet de recherche-action dans une plaine céréalière de Nouvelle-Aquitaine

    [...] (Elsa Berthet) 09 Feb 2021
  • [hal-04040811] Setting-up place-based and transdisciplinary research to foster agrifood system transformation: Insights from the Aliment'Actions project in western France

    Many agrifood systems around the world can be characterized as unsustainable. Research is increasingly required to inform the necessary radical transformations of the ways we produce, process, transport, and consume food. This article presents the research approach and methods of an ongoing project carried out at a long-term social–ecological research site, the Zone Atelier Plaine and Val de Sèvre (western France). The research project presented here, Aliment'Actions, started in 2018 and within 10 years of its implementation seeks to study and trigger transformation to enhance the sustainability and resilience of the regional agrifood system. Its research agenda contains four types of actions: (a) backdrop actions that enhance communication and trust between researchers and local stakeholders, (b) targeted actions that are conducted in specific villages with a wide range of stakeholders to elaborate and implement various transformation levers, (c) assessment actions evaluating the effects of different interventions, and (d) communication and result from dissemination actions. Overall, these actions aim to co-produce knowledge, raise awareness regarding challenges in the food system, envision new interactions between stakeholders, collectively generate innovative ideas, and catalyze actions oriented toward agrifood system transformation. The project implementation is adaptive and iterative, from theory to practice. This Methods paper puts this ongoing project into the perspective of other place-based research initiatives and provides insights on how to foster the engagement of non-academic actors in transdisciplinary research supporting agrifood system transformation. (Elsa Berthet) 22 Mar 2023
  • [hal-04549448] Étude des verrouillages sociotechniques à l’intégration culture élevage : Cas d’étude en Guadeloupe

    [...] (Damaris Sterling) 17 Apr 2024
  • [hal-04615497] Conception d'un agenda de recherche pour l'innovation couplée vers des systèmes agri-alimentaires durables

    [...] (Juliette Brun) 18 Jun 2024
  • [hal-04491402] Quels sols pour nourrir les villes de demain ?

    [...] (Nolwenn Gauthier) 06 Mar 2024
  • [hal-01799553] Who really wants an ambitious large-scale restoration of the Seine estuary?

    The development of ecosystem knowledge is an essential condition for effective environmental management but using available knowledge to solve environmental controversies is still difficult in "real" situations. This paper explores the conditions under which ecological knowledge could contribute to the environmental strategies and actions of stakeholders at science-policy interface. Ecological restoration of the Seine estuary is an example of an environmental issue whose overall management has run into difficulties despite the production of a large amount of knowledge by a dedicated organization, GIP Seine Aval. Thanks to an action-research project, based on a futures study, we analyze the reasons of these difficulties and help the GIP Seine Aval adopt a robust strategy to overcome them. According to our results, most local stakeholders involved in the large-scale restoration project emphasize the need for a clear divide between knowledge production and environmental action. This kind of divide may be strategic in a context where the robustness of environmental decisions is strongly depending on the mobilization of "neutral" scientific knowledge. But in our case study, this rather blocks action because some powerful stakeholders continuously ask for more knowledge before taking action. The construction and analysis of possible future scenarios has led to three alternative strategies being identified to counter this stalemate situation: (1) to circumvent difficulties by creating indirect links between knowledge and actions; (2) to use knowledge to sustain advocacy for the interests of each and every stakeholder; (3) to involve citizens in decisions about knowledge production and use, so that environmental issues weight more on the local political agenda. (Audrey Coreau) 24 May 2018
  • [hal-01587208] Responses in Micro-Mineral Metabolism in Rainbow Trout to Change in Dietary Ingredient Composition and Inclusion of a Micro-Mineral Premix

    Responses in micro-mineral metabolism to changes in dietary ingredient composition and inclusion of a micro-mineral premix (Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn and Se) were studied in rainbow trout. In a 2 x 2 factorial design, triplicate groups of rainbow trout (initial weight: 20g) were fed over 12 weeks at 17°C a fishmeal-based diet (M) or a plant-ingredient based diet (V), with or without inclusion of a mineral premix. Trout fed the V vs. M diet had lower feed intake, growth, hepato-somatic index, apparent availability coefficient (AAC) of Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn and also lower whole body Se and Zn concentration, whereas whole body Fe and Cu and plasma Fe concentrations were higher. Feeding the V diet increased intestinal ferric reductase activity; at transcriptional level, hepatic hepcidin expression was down-regulated and ferroportin 1 was up-regulated. Transcription of intestinal Cu-transporting ATPases and hepatic copper transporter1 were higher in V0 compared to other groups. Among the hepatic metalo-enzyme activities assayed, only Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase was affected, being lower in V fed fish. Premix inclusion reduced the AAC of Fe, Cu and Zn; increased the whole body concentration of all micro- minerals; up-regulated hepatic hepcidin and down-regulated intestinal ferroportin 1 transcription; and reduced the transcription of Cu-transporting ATPases in the intestine. Overall, the regulation of micro-mineral metabolism in rainbow trout, especially Fe and Cu, was affected both by a change in ingredient composition and micro-mineral premix inclusion. (P. Antony Jesu Prabhu) 27 Sep 2017
  • [hal-02763795] Exploring different approaches and organizations for labelling aquaculture products : the case of France

    [...] (Catherine Mariojouls) 04 Jun 2020
  • [hal-02762528] Consommation des produits d'origine aquatique et santé en Asie : cas du Japon

    Les Produits Animaux d'Origine Aquatique (PQOA) jouent un rôle important dans l'alimentation de nombreux pays d'Asie, en particulier dans la partie ouest et sud-est. D'un niveau de consommation annuelle très variable, ils sont responsables d'une part des apports protéiques, et parfois de près de 100% des protéines animales. Nous nous intéressons ici en particulier au Japon, qui attire l'attention par l'importance traditionnelle et contemporaine des produits de la pêche et de l'aquaculture dans son économie, sa culture et son régime alimentaire, et par un niveau élevé de consommation de PAOA associé à une longévité importante. (Catherine Mariojouls) 04 Jun 2020
  • [hal-02830711] Labelling and product differentiation in the French national market for oysters and mussels

    [...] (Catherine Mariojouls) 07 Jun 2020
  • [hal-01197767] Analyse économique comparée des filières de pisciculture marine dans les DOM-TOM (La Martinique, Mayotte, la Réunion). Tome II

    absent (Catherine Mariojouls) 11 Sep 2015
  • [hal-01173449] Evaluation of floating cages as an experimental tool for marine shrimp culture studies under practical earthen ponds conditions

    The New Caledonia blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris is commercially produced under semi-intensive rearing conditions. The size of the farming earthen ponds (5?10 ha) and the subsequent production constraints make it difficult to use them as experimental units for random experiments. Moreover, since every pond has its own characteristics, ponds' effects cannot be ruled out, thus making it hard to define true replicates. In order to design future experiments under conditions resembling those used in production, we evaluated the possible use of floating cages as experimental units with the aim of assessing treatment effects with a reasonable statistical power. To this end, two sets of floating cages were placed respectively in two different ponds in a commercial farm. In both cases the zootechnical conditions in the cages were similar in post-larvae origin, management, and diet and feeding regime. The aim of the study was to evaluate on a technical basis the possibility of rearing shrimps in floating cages set up in earthen ponds and to assess this method from a statistical standpoint. Shrimps reared in and outside the cages showed comparable growth and survival rates. The variability in the zootechnical parameters between cages, expressed as the estimated coefficient of variation (CV) for survival rate, total final biomass (g), final body weight (g), daily increment in body weight (g day− 1) and FCR were 11.0, 13.7, 4.4, 5.4, and 7.0%, respectively. On the basis of these figures, we calculated for a given statistical power (80%) the number of replicates (cages) that would be required to reveal significant differences between two treatments, at a 5% level of significance. We found that for expected differences of 20% from the control mean, 3 and 6 floating cages per treatment would be reasonable to determine statistical differences for growth parameters and survival rate, respectively. Moreover, we showed a significant pond effect in regard to survival and growth between the two sets of cages. These results illustrated the within-farm variability among the ponds, and confirmed that the specific characteristics of each pond from the same farm make it difficult to use the ponds themselves as experimental units. The study demonstrates that rearing in floating cages is an economical, powerful and sensitive experimental tool for shrimp culture studies specifically carried out under conditions close to semi-intensive production. (Jean Louis Chim) 07 Jul 2015
  • [hal-01197778] Analyse économique comparée des filières de pisciculture marine dans les DOM-TOM (La Martinique, Mayotte, la Réunion). Tome I

    absent (Catherine Mariojouls) 11 Sep 2015
  • [hal-02760709] New growth, new products. A market survey of aquaculture species

    Dans le cadre de l'action concertée européenne Masmanap, la diversification des produits issus des espèces aquacoles a fait l'objet d'une étude qualitative dans 8 pays. Le RU et la France montrent un important développement de produits nouveaux, en termes de transformation, de présentation et de conditionnement, basés essentiellement sur les espèces dont l'élevage est largement développé, comme le saumon, la truite, et, à un moindre niveau, les moules et les crevettes. Dans les autres pays, le développement de nouveaux produits est limité, soit parce que les modes de consommation traditionnels restent dominants (poisson frais en Norvège, Grèce, Italie, poisson congelé, appertisé, mariné en Allemagne), soit parce que la part des produits aquacoles dans la consommation est minime (Portugal). L'Espagne représente un cas intermédiaire, avec une consommation en frais très importante, en parallèle avec des produits aquacoles traditionnellement transformés à base de moules, et un développement de nouveaux produits (saumon, truite). On observe une tendance, dans tous les pays, au développement de produits prêts à la consommation, tendance particulièrement affirmée au RU, et à un moindre niveau en France. (Catherine Mariojouls) 04 Jun 2020
  • [hal-01197726] L'aquaculture au Japon

    absent (Catherine Mariojouls) 11 Sep 2015
  • [hal-01173459] Probiotic P. acidilactici application in shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris culture subject to vibriosis in New-Caledonia

    We studied the effects of a lactic acid bacterium, Pediococcus acidilactici (strain MA 18/5M, CNCM), as a dietary probiotic on growth performance and some nutritional and microbiological aspects of the shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris. Experimental shrimp culture was carried out over 10 weeks, using floating cages of 14 m2 each set in earthen ponds, in a New Caledonia farm affected by "Summer syndrome", a septicaemic vibriosis caused by Vibrio nigripulchritudo. The experiment design testing probiotic-coated pellets against control was replicated in two earthen ponds. High mortalities, characteristic of Summer syndrome, were observed during the first 2 weeks of the trial. The probiotic improved production in the treated cages from both ponds with increases in the survival rate (7% and 15% respectively) and final biomass (8% and 12% respectively). No differences were recorded among treatments on growth performances, but significant lower food conversion ratios were obtained with probiotic treatment. After 5 weeks of rearing, the Hepatosomatic Index and the adjusted dry weight of the digestive gland were significantly increased by 10% and by 9% respectively in shrimps treated with probiotic. In the meantime, the specific activities of a amylase and trypsin in the digestive gland showed a significant effect of the probiotic treatment with respective increases by 35% and 55%. The rise in total trypsin activity following morning feeding was also enhanced by the probiotic treatment (P<0.001). The highest concentration of probiotic (between 104-105 CFU g-1 of fresh gut) in the shrimp gut was obtained 2 h after feeding. The concentration remained high for 4 h after feeding before decreasing until the next meal. Total bacterial counts on Marine agar and TCBS in the gut were significantly lowered by the probiotic treatment over the 10 weeks of the experiment. Additionally, during the first 2 weeks, prevalence and load of V. nigripulchritudo strains in haemolymph was lower in animals fed with the probiotic diet. This study demonstrated, under pond conditions, that feeding shrimp with live terrestrial lactic acid bacteria can be an effective treatment for improving shrimp culture affected by vibriosis. (Mathieu Castex) 07 Jul 2015
  • [hal-02761647] Quality schemes and quality labels in the French fish farming sector

    [...] (Catherine Mariojouls) 04 Jun 2020
  • [hal-01356558] Meta-analysis of mineral requirements for farmed fish : comparison with data on terrestrial livestock

    absent (Philip Antony Jesu Prabhu) 25 Aug 2016

Date de modification : 26 avril 2024 | Date de création : 26 janvier 2024 | Rédaction : FB